science technology and medical journals

References, Referencing Rules/ Pattern in Brief

In this section, references should be sequenced in the order these appear in the text in the form of reference list. The number of references should preferably be limited to 50 (with the exception of review articles). The references should be in numbered format.

Examples of Reference Citation
Journal Article

Author(s) – Family name and initials. Title of article. Title of journal (Abbreviated and italic) Publication year; Volume(Issue): Pages.

1. Skalsky K, Yahav D, Bishara. J Treatment of human brucellosis: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2008; 336(7646): 701–4p.
(Journal publication less than 3 authors)

2. Hanna JN, McBride WJ, Brookes DL, et al. Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian. Med J Aust. 2006; 185(10): 562–4p. (Journal publication having more than three authors)

3. O’Leary C. Vitamin C does little to prevent winter cold. The West Australian. Forthcoming 2005 Can include date, volume and issue number if provided
(Journal article – in press)

4. Fletcher D, Wagstaff CRD. Organisational psychology in elite sport: its emergence, application and future. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2009;10(4):427–34p. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.03.009. (Electronic article – with DOI number)


Author(s) – Family name and initials, Multiple authors separated by a comma. Title of Book. Edition of book if later than 1st ed. Place of Publication: Publisher Name; Year of Publication.

1. Hofmeyr GJ, Neilson JP, Alfirevic Z, et al. A Cochrane Pocketbook: Pregnancy and Childbirth. Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2008. (Reference to a Book)

2. Rowlands TE, Haine LS. Acute limb ischaemia. In: Donnelly R, London NJM, editors. ABC of Arterial and Venous Disease. 2nd Edn. West Sussex: Blackwell Publishing; 2009. (Reference to a Chapter in an Edited Book)

3. Bartlett A, Breastwork: Rethinking breastfeeding [monograph online]. Sydney, NSW: University of New South Wales Press; 2005 [cited 2009 Nov 10]. Available from: NetLibrary (Electronic Book)

Conference Papers

Author(s) of paper – Family name and initials. Title of paper. In: Editor(s) Family name and initials, editor(s). Title of Conference; Date of conference; Place of conference. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Year of publication. Page numbers.

1. Kimura J, Shibasaki H (Eds). Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophysiology; 1995 Oct 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996. (Conference Proceedings)

2. Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC. Degoulet P. Piemme TE, Reinhoff O, (Eds.) MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1992. 1561–5p.
(Published Conference Paper)

3. Bowden FJ, Fairley CK. Endemic STDs in the Northern Territory: Estimations of effective rates of partner exchange. Paper presented at: The Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australian College of Physicians. Darwin, Australia. 1996 June 24-25. (Un published Conference Paper)

Newspaper and Magazine Articles

Author(s) – family name and initials. Article title. Newspaper title (edition of paper eg. Weekend edition). Date of publication – year month (3 letter abbreviation) day: Sect. Location eg. A:12 or Business 5 (5 is the page number) column number is applicable eg. col. 1)

1. Robertson J. Not married to the art. The Courier Mail (Weekend Edition). 2010 Mar 6-7:Sect. ETC:15 (Newspaper Article)

2. Marano HE. Making of a perfectionist. Psychol Today. 2008 Mar-Apr;41:80-86 (Magazine Article)

3. Bajak F. Why Chile dodged Haiti-style ruin. Toronto Star (Canada) [serial online]. 2010 Feb 28 [cited 2010 Mar 14]; Sect. News:A14 Available from: Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre (Electronic Newspaper or Magazine Article)

4. Drivers told: Don’t use Clem7 tunnel. The Courier Mail [Internet]. 2010 Mar 16 [cited 2010 Mar 16]; Available from:
(Electronic Newspaper Article on the Internet)

Reports and other Government Publications

Author(s). Title of report. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of publication – year month if applicable. Total number of pages if applicable eg. 24 p. Report No.: (if applicable)

1. Australia. Parliament. Senate. Select Committee on Climate Policy. Climate Policy Report. Canberra: The Senate; 2009.

2. Page E, Harney JM. Health Hazard Evaluation Report. Cincinnati (OH): National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US); 2001 Feb. 24 p. Report No.:HETA2000-0139-2824.


Printed Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year.
Online Thesis: Author. Thesis title [type of thesis on the internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year [cited date – year month day]. Available from: Name of database/web address

1. Kay JG. Intracellular cytokine trafficking and phagocytosis in macrophages [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2007. (Printed Thesis)

2. Pahl KM. Preventing anxiety and promoting social and emotional strength in early childhood: an investigation of aetiological risk factors [PhD thesis]. St Lucia, Qld: University of Queensland; 2009 [cited 2010 Mar 24]. Available from: University of Queensland Library E-Reserve (Online Thesis)