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Factors Responsible for Severity of Malaria

B. Esmael


Malaria causes high mortality and morbidity in the world, and 90% of all cases and 75% of deaths occurs in Africa. This distribution is intimately associated with poverty, topography, climatic condition, and the spread of vector and parasite species. To conduct effective treatment and prevention, the mechanism of pathogenesis of malaria should be recognized adequately, which unfortunately remains unclear and debatable. In this review, the main host and parasitic factors responsible for severity of malaria have been highlighted. These include hemolysis and dyserythropoiesis; factors associated with impaired microvascular circulation (sequestration, rosetting, coagulation and reduced red cell deformability); and factors associated with parasite-induced host proinflammatory responses (cytokines, nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species) which are associated with severe malaria. It is likely that the balance and timing of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production are important in disease development and parasite clearance. The study conducted in many areas of the world showed contradictory reports on the role of duffy-negative antigen, ovalocytosis and elliptocytosis.  The protective role of blood group O and  glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency  has been reported by many scholars. Similarly, the protective role of duffy-negative antigen, ovalocytosis and elliptocytosis has also been shown by many studies.



Keywords: malaria, severity, anemia, cerebral

Cite this Article


Esmael B. Factors Responsible for Severity of Malaria. Research & Reviews:  A Journal of Life Sciences. 2015; 5(2): 27–37p.



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