Utilization of Agricultural Waste for Defluoridation of Water: A Review

U. Pallavi, M.S. Chauhan


Fluoride is an essential micronutrient for human health which can be obtained from food items. Excess fluoride is one of the anionic, inorganic contaminants, found predominantly in ground water due to weathering of rocks, geochemical reactions or anthropogenic activity such as disposal of industrial wastewaters, because of which removal of excess fluoride is mandatory. Among various methods used for defluoridation of water, adsorption is widely used. It is more remarkable in terms of cost, simplicity of design and operation. Adsorption is a mass transfer technique. Transfer of ions from solution phase to the solid phase and it will be bounded by physical and/or chemical reaction. Various conventional and non-conventional, economical adsorbents are used for adsorption. Low cost adsorbents derived from agricultural and industrial by-products were implemented as reuse of waste materials which is a better option than disposal. These adsorbents are either used directly or modified with some other chemicals. Employing waste materials for adsorption has become an emerging trend because of their abundance, biodegradability, natural existence and economic features. Use of waste materials leads to sustainability of resources also. This paper reviews the application and performance of some waste materials (agricultural by-products) as adsorbents for defluoridation of water.


Keywords: Fluoride, Adsorption, Waste materials, Low cost adsorbents, defluoridation

Cite this Article

U. Pallavi, M.S. Chauhan. Utilization of Agricultural Waste for Defluoridation of Water: A Review. Recent Trends in Civil Engineering & Technology. 2015; 5(2): 23–29p.


Fluoride; Adsorption; Waste materials; Low cost adsorbents; defluoridation

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